Cairo. Egypt. View of the largest and most ornate minbar of the opulently decorated interior of the Ottoman Turkish styled Mohammed Ali Mosque at the Citadel. Built between 1830 and 1848, the Mosque has two towering minarets and multiple half-domes surrounding the central dome which dominates the skyline and is the Citadel’s most famous building. The Saladin citadel is a medieval Islamic fortification and a landmark of Cairo. Built on a limestone hill, the Citadel was founded by Muslim commander Salah ad-Din in 1176 to fortify the city against the Crusaders. The citadel is home to several mosques, palaces, museums, and offers panoramic views of Cairo.