Cairo. Egypt. View of the beautifully decorated Sahn courtyard entrance to the sanctuary at the Ottoman styled Mosque of Suleiman Pasha al-Khadim at the Saladin citadel. Dating from 1528, the beautiful Mosque is the first Ottoman Mosque built in Egypt. The Saladin citadel is a medieval Islamic fortification and a landmark of Cairo. Built on a limestone hill, the Citadel was founded by Muslim commander Salah ad-Din in 1176 to fortify the city against the Crusaders. The citadel is home to several mosques, palaces, museums, and offers panoramic views of Cairo.