Façade ceiling close-up above the Statue representing virtue (arete) of the Library of Celsus façade. Ephesus. Turkey. The library was built in AD 114 – 117 by Consul Gaius Julius Aquila as a mausoleum for his father, Julius Celsus Polemaeanus, who is buried in a in a tomb under the apsidal wall on the right side of the back wall. The library was one of the wealthiest in the empire and at its peak had more than 12,000 scrolls. The statutes seen in the niches between the doors symbolized wisdom, Sophia, Knowledge (episteme), intelligence (ennoia) and virtue (arte) of Celsus.